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The Training Material

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Table of contents


Key Concepts on Biosphere Reserves and Designated Areas: their Special Characteristics, their Role and Value
1st Chapter: Ecological principles and function of natural ecosystems

1.1 Introduction - Fundamental concepts
1.2 Organisation and characteristics of ecosystems
1.3 Biogeochemical cycles
1.4 Biodiversity
1.5 Types of flora and fauna in the Mediterranean
1.6 Types of ecosystems in the Mediterranean

2nd Chapter: Contemporary sustainable development issues overview

2.1 Introduction - Environmental problems and consequences
2.2 Pollution
2.3 Erosion, desertification, deforestation
2.4 Marine threats
2.5 Urbanisation and tourism pressures
2.6 Possible responses

3rd Chapter: Biosphere Reserves (BRs) and various types of designated areas

3.1 Introduction – Protecting designated spaces in the past
3.2 Biosphere Reserves and their characteristics
3.3 Other types of designated areas
3.4 The international legal framework for designated areas

4th Chapter: Management of MAB BRs and various types of designated areas

4.1 Introduction - From environmental management to sustainable management
4.2 The evolution of environmental management from 1960’s onwards
4.3 The scope for management within a Biosphere Reserve
4.4 Management plans
4.5 Fund-raising for Biosphere Reserves and other designated areas
4.6 The cultural dimension of designated areas

Key Concepts and Methods of Education for Sustainable Development in Biosphere Reserves and other Designated Areas

5th CHAPTER:Key concepts in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)

5.1 From Environmental Education (EE) to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
5.2 Basic principles and characteristics of ESD
5.3 Approaches to the concept “environment” in light of ESD
5.4 Research results on ESD in designated areas
5.5 Networks and collaborations supporting ESD

6th CHAPTER: The ESD programme officer in Biosphere Reserves

and other designated areas

6.1 Introduction
6.2 The competences of the educator, designer, facilitator
6.3 Special knowledge and competences needed
6.4 Communication
6.5 Using games: ice-breakers and group builders
6.6 Codes of conduct and safety rules

7th CHAPTER: Planning, implementing and evaluating ESD activities

within Biosphere Reserves and other designated areass

7.1 Introduction
7.2 What is to be achieved (setting objectives)
7.3 Who will be involved
7.4 Who is being addressed (target-group)
7.5 Choosing a method
7.6 Evaluation

8th CHAPTER: Current pedagogical methods and tools applied in ESD

8.1 Field visits and research
8.2 Working in groups
8.3 Conflict management within groups
8.4 Brainstorming and making charts
8.5 Concept maps
8.6 Geographical maps, graphics and other visual tools
8.7 Learning through objects
8.8 Experiments
8.9 Analogies and models
8.10 Values education within ESD
8.11 Simulation and dramatisation
8.12 Problem based learning
8.13 Participatory processes and methods for improving citizenship


Annex 1. Applied activities
Annex 2. Indicative Worksheet for the Water Quality Test
Annex 3. Behaviour change models
Annex 4. Acronyms